Transformerless inverter is increasing popularity in USA after European and Australian markets. This article presents an overview of the concept and advantages of transformerless inverter in solar applications

What is a transformerless inverter?

The differences between standard or conventional inverters and transformerless inverters are:

  1. Conventional inverters are built with an internal transformer that synchronizes the DC voltage with the AC output.
  2. The inverters use a computerized multi-step process and electronic components to convert DC to high frequency AC, back to DC, and ultimately to standard-frequency AC.

The inverters are increasing in popularity in European and Australian markets.

Inverter Appeal

The inverters are light, compact, and relatively inexpensive. Since transformerless inverters use electronic switching rather than mechanical switching the amount of heat and humidity produced by standard inverters is greatly reduced.
The inverters maintain the unique ability to utilize two power point trackers that allow installations to be treated as separate Solar PV Systems. In other words with transformerless inverters, Solar PV Panels can be installed in two different directions (i.e. north and west) on the same rooftop and generate DC output at separate peak hours with optimal effects. Traditional inverters work through only one power point, which means panels that are performing at lower frequencies will lower DC output for the entire system.

Considerations

The inverters do not have electrical isolation between DC and AC circuits. This may raise some grounding and / or lightning protection concerns. In order for transformerless inverters to comply with NEC specifications specially designed and more expensive PV Wire must be used.

Transformerless inverters have been developed for use with Grid-Tie Solar PV Systems, so Off-Grid systems users will not necessarily achieve the same benefit yet.

Efficiency

Inverter efficiency is determined by the percentage measurement of energy convergence (i.e. the closer to 100% of DC to AC convergence for the longest amount of time the more refined inverter efficiency). When calculating efficiency it is important to include peak and off-peak performance percentages in addition to how often your inverter is operating at rated capacity.

Studies show that even a small percentage increase in inverter efficiency means the power supply increase can be quite significant if factored throughout the life span of the inverters.

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